“How did he know this? Because of research done by the National Institutes of Health, of which he is the director. In connection with the SARS outbreak – caused by a coronavirus dubbed SARS- CoV – the NIH researched chloroquine and concluded that it was effective at stopping the SARS coronavirus in its tracks. The COVID-19 bug is likewise a coronavirus, labeled SARS-CoV-2. While not exactly the same virus as SARS-CoV-1, it is genetically related to it, and shares 79% of its genome, as the name SARS-CoV-2 implies. They both use the same host cell receptor, which is what viruses use to gain entry to the cell and infect the victim.” (guest post)
Caveat: While I am not a doctor or scientist, I do consider myself a researcher. I try to bring relevant information for reading and learning about current and humane topics. The following is highlighted vis-a-vis the Coronavirus and SARS-Cov-2 and Malaria (i.e. hydroxychloraquine) relationships.
Malaria and Blood
Malaria parasites go through a series of steps on their way to causing disease in humans. When a malaria-carrying mosquito bites a human host, the malaria parasite enters the bloodstream, multiplies in the liver cells, and is then released back into the bloodstream, where it infects and destroys red blood cells. hhmi.org/news
Malaria can cause a number of life-threatening complications. healthline
The following may occur:
swelling of the blood vessels of the brain, or
cerebral malaria an accumulation of fluid in the lungs that causes breathing problems, or
pulmonary edema organ failure of the kidneys, liver, or spleen
anemia due to the destruction of red blood cells low blood sugar
Common symptoms of malaria include:
- shaking chills that can range from moderate to severe
- high fever
- profuse sweating
- abdominal pain
- muscle pain
- bloody stools
Malaria is caused by the protozoon Plasmodium, transmitted to humans by Anopheles mosquitoes. The most dangerous of the plasmodia infecting humans is Plasmodium falciparum. The disease is caused by those parasite stages which multiply asexually in red blood cells. In non-immune individuals, P. falciparum may cause severe and life-threatening disease. Another risk group is constituted by pregnant women, particularly during their first pregnancies. Immunity to malaria usually requires repeated exposure to the parasite to become long lasting. One reason for this is the capacity of the parasite to vary the antigens which are major targets for protective antibodies. Antibody-dependent protection is primarily mediated by cytophilic IgG antibodies activating cytotoxic and phagocytic effector functions of neutrophils and monocytes. Malaria infection also involves elevated production of IgE antibodies. However, IgE-containing immune complexes are pathogenic rather than protective by crosslinking IgE receptors (CD23) on monocytes, leading to local overproduction of TNF, a major pathogenic factor in this disease. T cells are essential for both acquisition and regulation of malaria immunity. The major T cells controlling blood stage infections are CD4+ of both the Thl and Th2 subsets. However, T cells carrying the gamma6 receptor also contribute to this control. The balance between the cytokines produced by different cell types is critical for the course of infection, with IFN-gamma having a key role in anti-malaria defence. Blood-stage infections are also under complex genetic control. Among the regulatory genes, those involved in elevated production of TNF are associated with increased risk of severe disease and death due to P. falciparum infection.
It has long been known that people with blood type O are protected against severe malaria, while those with other types, such as A, often fall into a coma and die. science daily
[And it is thought that this blood type has a better chance of not being affected by COVID–19]
MALARIA AND COVID–19
COVID-19 and malaria: A symptom screening challenge for malaria endemic countries.
“Key steps to identifying a COVID-19 case ultimately involves symptomatic or high risk patients presenting to health providers with complaints of any of the following symptoms ... or history of travel to affected areas or contact with an infected person. Thus, current screening approaches for COVID-19 are likely to miss approximately 50% of the infected cases even in countries with good health systems and available diagnostic capacities (Gostic et al., 2020). Malaria shares some of the highly recognisable symptoms with COVID-19 such as: fever, difficulty in breathing, fatigue and headaches of acute onset. Thus, a malaria case may be misclassified as COVID-19 if symptoms alone are used to define a case during this emergency period and vice versa. Malaria symptoms appear within 10-15 days after an infective bite; multi-organ failure is common in severe cases among adults while respiratory distress is also expected in children with malaria, mimicking what is usually reported in patients with COVID-19” ijidonline
Malaria Drugs in COVID-19:
— Clinical trials may soon provide answers by Pippa Wysong, Contributing Writer, MedPage Today March 26, 2020
"Aminoquinoline drugs," key drugs used for treating malaria, are showing promise in the fight against COVID-19. But they shouldn't be put into widespread use at this point until more definitive research is done, and a variety of safety and efficacy concerns are addressed, researchers say. But the good news is, "We could have the answers we need in two weeks to a month if good quality randomized controlled trials are done," said James Wright, MD, PhD, a clinical pharmacologist and professor emeritus at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver.
This Does Not Have to Happen –
QUANTITIES ARE BEING PRODUCED NOW:
“Already, at least one major health system appears to be committing to hydroxychloroquine for treating COVID-19: BuzzFeed News reported that Kaiser Permanente told a California woman with lupus that it wouldn't refill her longstanding prescription for the drug because it was "conserving the current supply for those who are critically ill with COVID-19.” [totally unfair and maybe illegal] kaiserpermanente
TRUMP and hydroxychloroquine
Trump told reporters he has been taking the drug, hydroxychloroquine, and a zinc supplement daily “for about a week and a half now.” “I started taking it, because I think it’s good,” Trump said. “I’ve heard a lot of good stories.” In April, the National Institutes of Health launched a study testing hydroxychloroquine versus a placebo drug in 500 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Last week, NIH announced another study to see if hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin can prevent hospitalization or death in people with mild to moderate illness. About 2,000 U.S. adults with confirmed coronavirus infections and symptoms such as fever, cough or shortness of breath will get the drugs or placebo pills. time.com
The first experimental treatment of patients infected with COVID-19 has started in Norway. Oslo University Hospital is one of 22 venues in the country carrying out the major international study by the World Health Organization. The study will involve tests of three drug treatments, with both malaria and Ebola medicines involved.
The first drug to be tested will be Plaquenil (=“hydroxychloraquine”), originally made to treat malaria …. The Institute of Public Health believes that the research could be very important in the fight against the coronavirus. But it will take at least three months for it to be completed. And only then can a medicine be approved. euronews (questionable, if one can rely on the method and results of any test overseen by the WHO)
Scientists Study on CV attack on Hemoglobin (Blood)